Check-up ; Life and eating-drinking style, substance habits, genetic risk factors, factors related to the environment, daily or sportive activity level and ability to cope with stress are the determining factors for him to lead a healthy and quality life. The effects of all these factors on the health of individuals occur in different body systems and at different levels for each individual. For this reason, it is very important to determine the scope and content of the check-up individually while planning the health risk analysis of individuals. In this context, although check-up packages are standardized according to age and gender, their contents are presented with different alternatives, ranging from basic programs to broader screenings in which advanced research is carried out, according to the risk factors of the person.
Is every examination done at check-up?
Check-up is often preferred by people who do not have any complaints, in anticipation of obtaining information about their health status or investigating possible risk factors.
What should be used in any health screening within laboratory and radiological examinations has been determined as a result of scientific research. Unnecessary examinations may cause increased costs as well as harm the patient. Especially in radiological examinations, it is aimed to expose the patient to the lowest possible radiation dose. In addition, some examinations are performed for the purpose of following up when people have a disease or to investigate the underlying causes when they have a complaint. Therefore, such specific disease markers or radiological examinations are often not included in check-up examinations. Of course, people who have any chronic disease or some complaints and want to have information about their general health can also have a check-up.
In all check-up packages , although the scopes vary according to the selected package content, basically;
- biochemical analysis,
- cardiological examinations,
- radiological imaging,
- diabetes screening tests,
- blood fats,
- liver functions,
- kidney functions,
- thyroid tests,
- essential vitamins,
- some cancer screening tests
- complete blood count (hemogram),
- complete urinalysis,
- rheumatic and inflammatory state markers (such as sediment and CRP),
- body protein status,
- triglyceride levels,
- kidney and liver function tests,
- diabetes screening tests
- of essential minerals and vitamins
In all check-up packages for radiological imaging;
- lung X-ray,
- whole abdominal ultrasound,
- thyroid ultrasound
Other package contents are as follows;
- Cardiological examinations in check-up programs under the age of 40; echocardiography (ECO Doppler) and EKG examinations are performed.
- Exercise ECG (Exercise Cardiovascular Stress Test) is performed together with ECO Doppler in executive and exclusive check-up packages for those over 40 years old.
- In the male manager check-up program, there is thorax tomography instead of chest radiography and it is performed together with coronary calcium scoring. In addition, carotid Doppler examination is included in this package.
- In addition to the basic tests, the Exclusive check-up package includes chronic infection screening tests, thorax tomography, coronary CT angiography, carotid doppler ultrasound.
- In geriatrics (over 65 years of age) check-up programs, bone density is also checked.
While determining the content in check-up programs, age and gender are taken as a basis. For adults between the ages of 18-40, if the person does not have a genetic risk factor, any known chronic disease or habits such as smoking, standard check-up programs for women or men under the age of 40 are sufficient. Check-up programs are applied to people between the ages of 40-65. If the person has genetic risk factors or a history of substance use, executive or exclusive check-up programs are recommended, these programs have been prepared in a wider scope to investigate risk factors for possible cardiological or other chronic diseases. Geriatric check-up programs are available for people aged 65 and over and include specific examinations for this age group.
Regardless of age group, there are check-up panels that can be purchased in addition to check-up packages. These; heart diseases screening panel, cancer screening panel, allergy and food intolerance panel, infectious diseases screening panel, screening panel for tobacco users, bone health panel, sleep health panel, memory panel, anti-aging and immune system evaluation panel, rheumatic diseases screening panel etc. There are additional panels such as basic check-up packages and can be applied as a complement to the patient’s complaints.
Check-up contents are presented in detail in a way that facilitates these choices of patients. Individuals can always choose the appropriate check-up packages for themselves in line with their age, existing chronic diseases, genetic and lifestyle-related risk factors. Ideally, the content of the check-up package should be determined by the patient and the check-up physician together after the expectations and concerns are discussed in the first meeting with the check-up physician. Then a more effective health screening is possible with a lower cost.
Check-up is a multidisciplinary procedure, and it requires the analysis and interpretation of a great deal of knowledge consisting of laboratory, radiological, microbiological and nuclear medicine examinations, together with the opinion of many physicians from various branches, and planning for future follow-ups. It is very important to explain all these data in a language that the patient can understand and to follow up. Generally, internists work in check-up centers. A check-up doctor is like an orchestra conductor. It is responsible for compiling all data, informing the patient, answering questions if any, coordination with other branch physicians and planning follow-ups. This prevents possible problems from being overlooked, misunderstandings and redirections.
There is no age limit to have a check-up. Healthy child check-up programs are determined and followed by pediatricians. Appropriate check-up programs can be applied in the adult age group starting from the age of 18.
If there is no negative result in check-up examinations in adults under the age of 40 and if there are no known or detected risk factors (such as cyst, nodule or fibroadenoma, etc., which are recommended to be followed in examinations such as thyroid ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound, breast ultrasound), check-up is performed every 2 years. up is enough.
For adults over the age of 40, annual check-ups are recommended if there is no problem that needs to be followed up at shorter intervals. The most important element in check-up is “follow-up”. Many diseases or risk factors can be diagnosed and treated early after regular follow-ups. Risk factor-specific follow-ups are determined on a monthly, quarterly, 6-monthly or annual basis. Patient compliance is very important in this regard. The person should be aware of the importance of these follow-ups and take time to have the desired examinations done with the specified periods.
Investigation of risk factors related to heart diseases, revealing cardiovascular health status, follow-up and treatment of identified risk factors and heart diseases are one of the most important elements of check-up. In this regard, cardiologists and check-up physicians are in close cooperation.
Echocardiography and ECG are often sufficient for people under the age of 40, if there are no familial risk factors and the person does not smoke. If there are familial risk factors, long-term use of tobacco products, or if a problem is detected in basic examinations, exercise ECG, coronary calcium scoring, and in some cases even coronary CT angiography may be requested. All these are decided by the cardiologist. The aim here is to reveal the presence of plaque in the coronary heart vessels that predisposes to vascular occlusion and heart attack, and the degree of stenosis caused by this plaque, if any. The accumulation of these fatty substances and cholesterol residues, called atherosclerotic plaques, on the vessel wall paves the way for a heart attack.
Stress ECG and echocardiography are used as standard in heart screening of people over 40 years of age. If people have the specified cardiac risk factors or there is a problem in basic examinations, the person is directed to check-up packages that include coronary calcium scoring or coronary CT angiography examinations. Carotid Doppler is another examination that is frequently used to evaluate the condition of the cardiovascular system in people over the age of 40 and in people who smoke. The carotid arteries are the arteries on both sides of the neck, known as the carotid arteries, that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. The presence of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery, just like in the coronary vessels, can cause vascular occlusion, pave the way for blood clots to go to the brain, and ultimately increase the risk of stroke. Except for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, during check-up; heart valve diseases, hypertension and heart rhythm disorders can also be detected and treated. In this context, 24-hour heart rhythm and blood pressure holter is used in addition to check-up tests. Lower and upper extremity Doppler examinations (a type of vascular ultrasound performed to investigate the condition of the veins in the upper body or legs) are not included in routine check-up packages, people with signs of varicose or vascular failure are referred to cardiovascular surgery, and these tests are checked-up if necessary. added to the tests. In this context, 24-hour heart rhythm and blood pressure holter is used in addition to check-up tests. Lower and upper extremity Doppler examinations (a type of vascular ultrasound performed to investigate the condition of the veins in the upper body or legs) are not included in routine check-up packages, people with signs of varicose or vascular failure are referred to cardiovascular surgery, and these tests are checked-up if necessary. added to the tests. In this context, 24-hour heart rhythm and blood pressure holter is used in addition to check-up tests. Lower and upper extremity Doppler examinations (a type of vascular ultrasound performed to investigate the condition of the veins in the upper body or legs) are not included in routine check-up packages, people with signs of varicose or vascular failure are referred to cardiovascular surgery, and these tests are checked-up if necessary. added to the tests.
Regardless of age, all women have a gynecological examination in their check-up package. In addition to gynecological examination and gynecological ultrasound, cervico-vaginal smear and human papilloma virus (HPV) smear tests are taken separately. It is recommended that these examinations and examinations be carried out annually. There are more than a hundred types of HPV and it is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections today. The presence of HPV (especially some types) is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. For this reason, patients who have positive results in smear and/or HPV smear tests during check-up, and those who have a mass, polyp, risky ovarian cyst or myoma detected during the examinations are evaluated separately by the gynecological oncology surgeon of our hospital for advanced diagnostic methods and treatment when necessary.
It is another important element of check-up. Performing mammography and breast ultrasound at the same center every year provides significant knowledge over the years about the status of the problems followed. Breast Health Center By determining the frequency with which patients will be checked, it is meticulously examined whether there is any change in the problems in the breast when the person comes for control. Women under the age of 40 are examined with breast US and, if necessary, breast MRI, women over 40 are examined with breast US and mammography, and if necessary, breast MRI. Annual follow-ups are recommended, and if there are pathologies that need to be followed for 3 or 6 months, the patient is followed up closely. If it is decided to further evaluate the suspicious lesions with biopsy in the radiological follow-up, the diagnosis is made quickly by taking the opinion of the general surgeons working in the Breast Health Center.
All male check-up packages include prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and prostate examination on abdominal ultrasound, but only all male patients between the ages of 40-65 and in the geriatric age group are examined by a urologist. In male check-ups under the age of 40, if the patient has a high PSA or has a urological complaint, an extra urology examination can be performed. Multiparametric prostate MRI and, if necessary, prostate biopsy are additionally requested by urology specialists in patients with elevated PSA levels. Not only for prostate cancer, but also for the diagnosis and treatment of benign prostate enlargement during these examinations. If necessary, the uroflowmetry test (voiding test), which is a test that measures the speed and strength of the urine flow while urinating, can be performed as an extra. In patients with hematuria (blood in the urine), tomographic examination of the urinary tract and, if necessary, cystoscopy (examination of the urinary tract with a camera) can be performed as an extra. Testicular ultrasound (scrotal ultrasound) is not included in the check-up packages, but it can be done as an extra if the urologist detects a problem during the examination or if the patient has a complaint.
All check-up packages include thyroid ultrasound and thyroid hormone test. Nodules in the thyroid gland located in the front of the neck are easily detected by ultrasound and the risk status can be classified according to the ultrasonographic appearance of the nodules. Nodules with high risk in appearance, size and risk assessment can be biopsied with thyroid ultrasound. Nodules that are found to be at high cancer risk or to be cancerous in the pathological examination of the biopsy sample are referred to general surgeons. Another common thyroid problem is “chronic thyroiditis”; It is a type of autoimmune thyroiditis and is often discovered incidentally during check-up. It can be treated depending on whether the thyroid functions are increased or decreased.
Yes, a “Screening panel for those who use tobacco and tobacco products” has been created to investigate the negative effects on the body caused by these. The content of this panel; In addition to radiological examinations such as “Computerized Thoracic Tomography”, Coronary Calcium Scoring”, “Carotid Doppler US”, there are also Pulmonary Function Test and Chest Diseases Examination. Thus, it is aimed to create a panel that investigates not only the carcinogenic or atherosclerotic effects of smoking, but also the extent to which it impairs lung functions. This panel can be taken in addition to other basic check-up programs, or it can be applied independently to those who just want to learn about the negative effects of smoking.
Nutrition; It is a behavior that should be done consciously in order to take the nutrients needed by the body in sufficient quantities and at the appropriate times in order to protect and develop health and improve the quality of life. However, individualized medical nutrition therapy is an important support for recovery in various diagnosed diseases. For patients who have had check-ups, getting nutritional recommendations suitable for their results contributes to their quality of life.
Analyzes of patients within the check-up in the Nutrition and Diet Polyclinic; The doctor is evaluated as a result of examination, diagnosis and determination of treatment plans. Body analyzer measures weight, fat, muscle and water values. A history of the patient’s nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle is taken. Along with all this information, personalized nutritional recommendations are offered.
The anti-aging and immune system evaluation panel can be purchased in addition to the basic check-up packages, and in addition to the essential vitamins and minerals in these packages, it is possible to obtain information about the antioxidant capacity of the body and the state of the immune system with more detailed analyzes. Deficient antioxidants, minerals and vitamins are determined in the check-up result interview, and a plan is made on how to complete them and how to use supportive drugs within a program. Thus, a stronger metabolism and immune system are targeted. It is aimed to minimize the damage to our body caused by stress, environmental pollution, chronic diseases and harmful habits.